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以色列对巴勒斯坦人的种族隔离:一种残酷的统治制度和一种危害人类的罪行

以色列当局必须对对巴勒斯坦人犯下种族隔离罪行负责, 国际特赦组织今天在一份新的报告中说. The investigation details how Israel enforces a system of oppression and domination against the Palestinian people wherever it has control over their rights. 这包括居住在以色列和巴勒斯坦被占领土上的巴勒斯坦人, 以及其他国家的流离失所的难民.

综合报告, 以色列对巴勒斯坦人的种族隔离:残酷的统治制度和反人类罪行, sets out how massive seizures of Palestinian land and property, 非法杀人, 强行转移, 剧烈运动的限制, 和 denial of nationality and citizenship to Palestinians are all components of a system which amounts to apartheid under international law. This system is maintained by violations which Amnesty International found to constitute apartheid as a crime against humanity, 《hg体育》和《hg体育官网》所规定的.

Amnesty International is calling on the International Criminal Court (ICC) to consider the crime of apartheid in its current investigation in the OPT and calls on all states to exercise universal jurisdiction to bring perpetrators of apartheid crimes to justice.

Our report reveals the true extent of Israel’s apartheid regime. 他们是否住在加沙, 东耶路撒冷和约旦河西岸的其他地方, 或以色列本身, 巴勒斯坦人被视为低等种族群体,被系统地剥夺了权利. hg体育发现以色列残酷的种族隔离政策, 在其控制下的所有领土上剥夺和排斥显然构成种族隔离. 国际社会有义务采取行动

艾格尼丝Callamard, Amnesty International’s Secretary General

“There is no possible justification for a system built around the institutionalized and prolonged racist oppression of millions of people. 种族隔离在hg体育的世界里没有立足之地, 而那些选择体谅以色列的国家将会发现自己站在历史错误的一边. Governments who continue to supply Israel with arms and shield it from accountability at the UN are supporting a system of apartheid, 破坏国际法律秩序, 并加剧了巴勒斯坦人民的痛苦. The international community must face up to the reality of Israel’s apartheid, and pursue the many avenues to justice which remain shamefully unexplored.”

Amnesty International’s findings build on a growing body of work by Palestinian, 以色列和国际非政府组织, 在以色列和/或被占领土上越来越多地使用种族隔离框架的人.

标识隔离

种族隔离制度是一个种族群体对另一个种族群体的压迫和统治的制度化制度. It is a serious human rights violation which is prohibited in public international law. Amnesty International’s extensive research and legal analysis, 与外部专家协商后进行, demonstrates that Israel enforces such a system against Palestinians through laws, policies and practices which ensure their prolonged and cruel discriminatory treatment.

在国际刑法中, specific unlawful acts which are committed within a system of oppression and domination, 为了维护它, 构成种族隔离危害人类罪. 这些条例载于 种族隔离的公约罗马规约, 包括非法杀害, 酷刑, 强行转移, 以及对基本权利和自由的剥夺.

Amnesty International documented acts proscribed in the 种族隔离的公约 and Rome Statute in all the areas Israel controls, although they occur more frequently and violently in the OPT than in Israel. 以色列当局制定了多项措施,故意剥夺巴勒斯坦人的基本权利和自由, 包括在被占领土上严格的行动限制, chronic discriminatory underinvestment in Palestinian communities in Israel, 以及剥夺难民返回家园的权利. 该报告还记录了强制转移, 行政拘留, 酷刑, 和非法杀人, 在以色列和巴勒斯坦被占领土.

Amnesty International found that these acts form part of a systematic and widespread attack directed against the Palestinian population, and are committed with the intent to maintain the system of oppression and domination. They therefore 构成种族隔离危害人类罪.

The unlawful killing of Palestinian protesters is perhaps the clearest illustration of how Israeli authorities use proscribed acts to maintain the status quo. In 2018, Palestinians in Gaza began to hold weekly protests along the border with Israel, calling for the right of return for refugees and an end to the blockade. 甚至在抗议开始之前, senior Israeli officials warned that Palestinians approaching the wall would be shot. By the end of 2019, Israeli forces had killed 214 civilians, including 46 children.

In light of the systematic 非法杀人 of Palestinians documented in its report, 国际特赦组织也呼吁联合国安理会对以色列实施全面武器禁运. This should cover all weapons and munitions as well as law enforcement equipment, 因为成千上万的巴勒斯坦平民被以色列军队非法杀害. The Security Council should also impose targeted sanctions, 例如资产冻结, against Israeli officials most implicated in the crime of apartheid.

巴勒斯坦人被视为人口威胁

自1948年成立以来, 以色列奉行的政策是建立并维持犹太人占人口多数, and maximizing control over land and resources to benefit Jewish Israelis. In 1967, Israel extended this policy to the West Bank and Gaza Strip. 今天, all territories controlled by Israel continue to be administered with the purpose of benefiting Jewish Israelis to the detriment of Palestinians, 而巴勒斯坦难民继续被排除在外.

国际特赦组织承认犹太人, 像巴勒斯坦人, 要求自决权, and does not challenge Israel’s desire to be a home for Jews. 类似的, it does not consider that Israel labelling itself a “Jewish state” in itself indicates an intention to oppress and dominate.

然而, Amnesty International’s report shows that successive Israeli governments have considered Palestinians a demographic threat, 并采取措施控制和减少他们的存在以及进入以色列和被占领土的机会. 将以色列和西岸地区“犹太化”的官方计划很好地说明了这些人口目标, 包括东耶路撒冷, which continue to put thousands of Palestinians at risk of 强行转移.

压迫无国界

1947-49年和1967年的战争, 以色列对巴勒斯坦被占领土的军事统治, 和 creation of separate legal and administrative regimes within the territory, have separated Palestinian communities and segregated them from Jewish Israelis. Palestinians have been fragmented geographically and politically, 根据他们的地位和居住地,他们会经历不同程度的歧视.

目前,在以色列的巴勒斯坦公民比被占领土上的巴勒斯坦公民享有更多的权利和自由, 而居住在加沙的巴勒斯坦人的经历与居住在约旦河西岸的巴勒斯坦人截然不同. 尽管如此, 国际特赦组织的研究表明,所有巴勒斯坦人都受制于同样的总体体系. Israel’s treatment of Palestinians across all areas is pursuant to the same objective: to privilege Jewish Israelis in distribution of land and resources, and to minimize the Palestinian presence and access to land.

Amnesty International demonstrates that Israeli authorities treat Palestinians as an inferior racial group who are defined by their non-Jewish, 阿拉伯的地位. 这种种族歧视在影响整个以色列和巴勒斯坦被占领土的巴勒斯坦人的法律中得到巩固.

例如, 以色列的巴勒斯坦公民被剥夺国籍, establishing a legal differentiation from Jewish Israelis. 在西岸和加沙, where Israel has controlled the population registry since 1967, Palestinians have no citizenship and most are considered stateless, requiring ID cards from the Israeli military to live and work in the territories.

巴勒斯坦难民及其后代, 谁在1947- 1949年和1967年的冲突中流离失所, continue to be denied the right to return to their former places of residence. Israel’s exclusion of refugees is a flagrant violation of international law which has left millions in a perpetual limbo of forced displacement.

Palestinians in annexed East Jerusalem are granted permanent residence instead of citizenship – though this status is permanent in name only. 自1967年以来, 超过14,000名巴勒斯坦人在内政部的自由裁量权下被取消了他们的居留权, 导致他们被强行转移到城外.

小公民

以色列的巴勒斯坦公民, 谁占总人口的19%, 面对许多形式的制度化歧视. In 2018, discrimination against Palestinians was crystallized in a constitutional law which, 第一次, enshrined Israel exclusively as the “nation state of the Jewish people”. 该法律还促进了犹太人定居点的建设,并降低了阿拉伯语作为官方语言的地位.

这份报告记录了巴勒斯坦人是如何被有效地阻止租用以色列80%的国有土地的, as a result of racist land seizures and a web of discriminatory laws on land allocation, 规划和分区.

The situation in the Negev/Naqab region of southern Israel is a prime example of how Israel’s planning and building policies intentionally exclude Palestinians.  自1948年以来,以色列当局采取各种政策使内盖夫/纳卡布“犹太化”, including designating large areas as nature reserves or military firing zones, 以及设定增加犹太人口的目标. 这对生活在该区域的数万名巴勒斯坦贝都因人造成了毁灭性的后果.

35贝都因人的村庄, 大约有68个,000人, 目前被以色列“不承认”, 这意味着他们被切断了国家的电力和供水,并成为屡次被拆除的目标. 因为这些村庄没有官方身份, their residents also face restrictions on political participation and are excluded from the healthcare and education systems. These conditions have coerced many into leaving their homes and villages, 在什么程度上相当于强制转让.

Decades of deliberately unequal treatment of 以色列的巴勒斯坦公民 have left them consistently economically disadvantaged in comparison to Jewish Israelis. This is exacerbated by blatantly discriminatory allocation of state resources: a recent example is the government’s Covid-19 recovery package, 其中只有1个.7%给了巴勒斯坦地方当局.

剥夺

巴勒斯坦人被赶出家园和流离失所是以色列种族隔离制度的一个关键支柱. 自建国以来,以色列对巴勒斯坦人实施了大规模、残酷的土地掠夺, 并继续实施无数的法律和政策,迫使巴勒斯坦人进入小块飞地. 自1948年以来, Israel has demolished hundreds of thousands of Palestinian homes and other properties across all areas under its jurisdiction and effective control.

在内盖夫/纳卡布, Palestinians in East Jerusalem and Area C of the OPT live under full Israeli control. The authorities deny building permits to Palestinians in these areas, forcing them to build illegal structures which are demolished again and again.

在巴勒斯坦被占领土,以色列非法定居点的继续扩大使局势恶化. The construction of these settlements in the OPT has been a government policy since 1967. 如今,定居点占据了约旦河西岸10%的土地, 1967年至2017年,东耶路撒冷约38%的巴勒斯坦土地被征用.

东耶路撒冷的巴勒斯坦居民区经常成为定居者组织的目标, 在以色列政府的全力支持下, work to displace Palestinian families and h和ir homes to settlers. 一个这样的社区, 谢赫贾拉, has been the site of frequent protests since May 2021 as families battle to keep their homes under the threat of a settler lawsuit.

严厉的运动限制

Since the mid-1990s Israeli authorities have imposed increasingly stringent movement restrictions on Palestinians in the OPT. 军事检查站的网络, 路障, fences and other structures controls the movement of Palestinians within the OPT, 并限制他们进入以色列或国外的旅行.

700公里外的栅栏, 以色列还在扩张这片土地吗, has isolated Palestinian communities inside “military zones”, 和y must obtain multiple special permits any time they enter or leave their homes. 在加沙地带, 200多万巴勒斯坦人生活在以色列的封锁之下,造成了人道主义危机. It is near-impossible for Gazans to travel abroad or into the rest of the OPT, 和y are effectively segregated from the rest of the world.

对巴勒斯坦人, 在被占空间内进出的困难时刻提醒着他们的无能为力. Their every move is subject to the Israeli military’s approval, 和 simplest daily task means navigating a web of violent control

艾格尼丝Callamard

巴勒斯坦被占领土上的许可证制度是以色列公然歧视巴勒斯坦人的象征. 当巴勒斯坦人被封锁时, 在检查点呆了几个小时, 或者等待另一个许可证通过, Israeli citizens and settlers can move around as they please.”

Amnesty International examined each of the security justifications which Israel cites as the basis for its treatment of Palestinians. 报告显示, 而以色列的一些政策可能是为了实现合法的安全目标而设计的, they have been implemented in a grossly disproportionate and discriminatory way which fails to comply with international law. Other policies have absolutely no reasonable basis in security, and are clearly shaped by the intent to oppress and dominate.

前进的道路

Amnesty International provides numerous specific recommendations for how the Israeli authorities can dismantle the apartheid system 和 discrimination, 隔离和压迫支撑着它.

该组织呼吁,作为第一步,结束残酷的房屋拆迁和强迫驱逐的做法. Israel must grant equal rights to all Palestinians in Israel 和 OPT, in line with principles of international human rights and humanitarian law. It must recognize the right of 巴勒斯坦难民及其后代 to return to homes where they or their families once lived, 并向侵犯人权和危害人类罪行的受害者提供充分的赔偿.

The scale and seriousness of the violations documented in Amnesty International’s report call for a drastic change in the international community’s approach to the human rights crisis in Israel 和 OPT.  

All states may exercise universal jurisdiction over persons reasonably suspected of committing the crime of apartheid under international law, and states that are party to the 种族隔离的公约 have an obligation to do so. 

国际社会对种族隔离的反应不能再局限于空洞的谴责和含糊其辞. 除非hg体育解决根本原因, 巴勒斯坦人和以色列人将继续陷于暴力的循环之中,这种循环已经摧毁了许多人的生命

艾格尼丝Callamard

“以色列必须废除种族隔离制度,并开始将巴勒斯坦人视为拥有平等权利和尊严的人. 在此之前,和平与安全对以色列人和巴勒斯坦人来说都将是一个遥远的前景.”

请参见 完整的报告 关于种族隔离在国际法中的详细定义.

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